Curriculum frameworks have been adopted in many countries under various names such as ‘core subjects’, ‘foundation subjects’, ‘key learning areas’. Supposedly they facilitate curriculum planning and provide greater flexibility for teachers. Yet, they can also be a tool of control and direction. It is important to consider the claims and counter-claims about curriculum

frameworks. Harris’ (2005) question is an important one: ‘are they a force for pedagogical change or a façade for continued conservation?’ (p. 53).