Formulating a goal is a normative task. Evaluating whether the goal is desirable and just is a question that lies outside all sciences. But there are many practical problems surrounding the goal which are open to scientific investigation. Formulating the goal is often conceived as a part of the way decision-makers describe the situation. In the standard case, we assume that both the situation and the goal are clearly and correctly acknowledged by the decision-makers. In real life, this is certainly not always the case.