Th e late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed a number of movements to improve conditions for children and provide play and playgrounds. Following the introduction of outdoor gymnasiums and sand gardens in America, two parallel play and playground movements emerged. As seen in previous chapters, the fi rst movement was based initially on the German physical fi tness tradition. Th e physical fi tness movement, emphasizing physical development and recreation, grew from the early twentieth century Playground Association of America, but through a series of mergers became the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) which exists today. Th e NRPA continues to champion physical fi tness for all age groups, with a stress on safety, following the adoption of national playground safety guidelines and standards during the late twentieth century. Its major audience is urban recreation and park professionals, and its early emphasis on playgrounds for physical development and safety is alive and well in urban park playgrounds and public schools.