Evidence regarding the relationship between marketing and drinking patterns has led researchers to quite different conclusions. For example, two articles sum up the opposing opinions: According to Henriksen, Feighery, Schleicher, and Fortmann (2008), “Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking” (p. 28); meanwhile, Ringold (2008) found that alcohol advertising “does not exert a material influence on total consumption or abuse” and that “[i]ndustry-sponsored responsibility efforts . . . appear to affect desired changes . . . , model desired drinking behaviors, and may be more effective with heavier drinkers” (p. 127). ese two conclusions illustrate a real lack of consensus. e proponents of greater government control of the drinks industry and its marketing efforts draw on a body of research that supports their position, while those who favor liberalization are able to counter this with a parallel flow of work indicating the opposite.