The collapse of the tsarist regime in early 1917 produced a chain of events in Central Asia. In mid April 1917, the First Central Asian Muslim Congress in Tashkent demanded the cessation of Russian rule and the return of confiscated lands to the local population. In early September 1917, the Second Central Asian Muslim Congress in Tashkent suggested the creation of an Autonomous Federated Republic of Turkistan. Vladimir Lenin declared the new communist government on 8 November 1917. In late November 1917, the Fourth Central Asian Muslim Congress in Kokand led to the establishment of the Muslim Provisional Government of Autonomous Turkistan. In mid-February 1918, however, the Red Army defeated the troops of the Muslim government in Kokand, resulting in the slaughter of the Muslim population.1