The Central Asian region, almost ignored by Western powers for most of the twentieth century, has come into the political limelight in recent years. The tragic events of 11 September 2001 and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan have initiated a debate about radical Islamic groups in Central Asia. Although the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) initially received much greater scrutiny because of its militant activities, think tanks and scholars have expanded their attention to include non-violent radical groups like Hizb ut-Tahrir.1