Agbiotech was challenged early on as a choice for future agriculture-fi rst in Germany and Denmark, and later in other countries such as France and the UK (as analysed in Chapter 3). Through autonomous initiatives such as open meetings, protest, boycotts, mass-media stunts and sabotage, citizens’ collective action challenged government promotion of agbiotech. Societal confl ict potentially jeopardised the policy framework on which agbiotech depended.