The Israeli experience of ethnicity, politics and conflict of identities is rooted in the pre-state period, when immigrants in the mandatory Palestine “Jewish Yishov” were forced to deal with conflicts and clashes among the contradictory aspirations and interests of various groups within the Jewish community. During this pre-state period, European Jews dominated Jewish life in the Yishov. At the same time, a small community of immigrants from the Arab states and the Middle East emerged as a distinct “Oriental” group. Following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, group identities were empowered by the immigration of Jews from all over the world, especially from the Arab states. In addition, a new Palestinian minority was added to Israel’s diversity. This group included those Palestinians who remained under Israeli control following the expulsion operations by the Jewish military forces in 1948.