I N 1979, Kotter and Schlesinger observed, "Today, more and more man-agers must deal with new government regulations, new products, growth,increased competition, technological developments, and a changing work force. In response, most companies ... find that they must undertake moderate

organizational changes at least once a year and major changes every four or five" (p. 106). This trend has only increased in the past decade and a half (Cushman & King, 1994), and rapid change likely will continue to be a cornerstone of organizational life into the 21 st century. The implementation of change programs is costly in terms of financial resources, employee time investment, managerial time, and often in terms of employee morale (Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979). An organization's survival also may hinge on its success in implementing many large-scale changes (e.g., reorganization, downsizing, major production technologies).