ABSTRACT

Three things become clear very quickly in any such discussion. First, democracy itself is an essentially contested term, in that one person's idea of a democratic arrangement may be another's notion of a constraining and oppressive system of governance (Gustavsen, 1992). Second, democracy and democratization are dauntingly complex matters even when we do agree more or less on our use of terms. Third, critical observers are looking for and at democratic practices far beyond the traditional domains of politics and civil rights.