T HE First Amendment to the D.S. Constitution, which became effectiveDecember 15,1791, proclaims: "Congress shall make no law respect-ing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." The framers of the Constitution thus recognized the indispensability of freedom of thought and expression for the healthy growth of a democracy. The libertarianism reflected in the First Amendment-an

mental) journalism concepts (e.g., Golding & Harris, 1997; Hasim, 1996a, 1996b; Jayaweera & Amunugama, 1987; Mehra, 1989; Nerone, 1995; Nordenstreng, Manet, & Kleinwachter, 1986), the present endeavor, in relation to these two, will refer only to those sources that pertain to the thrust of this essay.