Bacon, Francis (1561-1626) Lawyer, educational reformer, rhetorician, scientist, lord chancellor of England. Author of the Advancement of Learning, Novum organum, New Atlantis, and other scientific and literary works, Francis Bacon sought to reform the whole of human learning in his time by proposing new methods for the development and communication of knowledge. Bacon sought to replace Aristotelian and scholastic methods of knowing with a new scientific method, developed a rhetorical theory as a means of communicating knowledge thus acquired, and presented both his scientific method and his rhetoric in a paradoxical language that has inspired diverse positivist, institutional, and democratic forms of scientific rhetoric.