President Dmitry Medvedev has demonstrated an active interest in the theoretic foundations of Russia’s security policy, by releasing security documents and launching military reforms. This chapter explains the details of Medvedev’s security documents and statements. In addition to initiating a number of security documents, in the aftermath of the Georgian conflict Medvedev also proved to be very active in introducing plans for military reforms and modernization of the Russian armed forces. Both components – security documents and military reforms – constitute the theoretic structure of Medevedev’s foreign security policy. This chapter concludes with an analysis of Medvedev’s security thinking in comparison with corresponding key documents of his predecessor Putin.