Place has had a growing role in public policy and delivery in England since 2000. Place is integrated within the system of local governance and spatial narratives are a means of identifying how places work and their needs in an integrated way; they are a means of overcoming institutional silos with conflicting priorities and targets. A contributor to this shift has been the many place-specific ‘unexpected’ events that have been attributed to climate change, such as an increase in locations that have been flooded for the first time, drought and other localised weather events at both ends of the temperature continuum. People use places in ways that suit them and place has become a metaphor for community-centred approaches which include:

• local decision making • local budgets • place-based outcomes • removing centralised delivery targets.