The central argument of the two justice-focused chapters is that newly democratic governments need a more integrated, coordinated strategy informing the meanings ascribed to, and policy interventions undertaken in the name of, justice. Ordinarily, in both the policy arena and academic commentary, there are distinct, mutually exclusive narratives rather than a synthesised plot. The first narrative concerns what is conventionally known as transitional justice. It is essentially backward-looking (how to reckon with a legacy of human rights abuses). To the extent that it projects into the future it does so through the prism of the past, seeking to prevent the past returning in the future. The second narrative is essentially forward-looking, and speaks of the criminal justice system and its reform, and the challenges caused by increases in criminal and social violence that often accompany the transition towards liberal, market democracy. To begin to engage with such complex dynamics entails bringing the various

narratives of violence and justice into dialogue. Political transition can provide a rare political opening, allowing meanings and policies in the justice field to be revisited, publicly debated and potentially revised. At present, the outcome is invariably a story of opportunities lost. This chapter focuses on the first justice narrative, justice past, while Chapter 4 addresses the second narrative, justice present.