I. IS THERE A POPULATION PROBLEM IN JAPAN? Whatever the realities may turn out to be, there are at least the appearances of a population problem in Japan. The population of Japan Proper numbered over 62 millions in 1928; in 1878, fifty years before, it numbered only half this figure-it had doubled itself in less than two generations. And in 1928 the Birth Rate was 34.4 per thousand. For the period 1921-5 it has averaged 34.3 per thousand, while the Birth Rate in England for the same period was 19.9, and in Germany 21.8.1 Since 1922 more than six millions have been added to the country’s inhabitants-that is, more than the entire population of Australia.