I f motivation is sometimes a factor in the etiology of delusions, are some cases of delusion also examples of self-deception? Alfred Mele’s reections on this question offer important insights, both about the two-factor framework for understanding delusions and about self-deception. The lesson about the two-factor framework is this: in order to consider systematically the points at which motivation might enter the etiology of a delusion, we need to consider not only the rst factor and the second factor, but also the processing stage that leads from experience to belief. The lesson about self-deception is that it is a demanding notion. There are many ways short of self-deception in which motivation may play a role in a subject’s arriving at a false belief.