As in the writing of journals, the reflection engendered in most of these exercises is in a represented form - either oral or written. Reflection in initial learning occurs in those examples where the learner is presented with difficult material and is forced to undergo reflective activity in order to produce a reasonable response. In the same way as journal writing, there will be occasions when the material oflearning that has been learnt superficially becomes linked into meanings and that learning is then upgraded.