A third problem is that of conceptualizing learning. This is because the processes of observing learning are normally those of representation of that learning, which take either written expression or oral form. Representation might not be considered to be a part of the process of learning, yet it is clear that, at times, the process of representing learning is actually part of learning (Eisner, 1982, 1991). For example, the writing of this book is a process of clarification of - or learning about - the concept of reflection for the writer. On a smaller scale, the writing of an essay is a means of exploration of an idea and journal writing (see Chapter 15) is quite deliberate learning about the self or the self in relation to a particular experience. Most of the research on learning is research on learning with the associated representation of that learning, and it is possible to be an effective learner but poor at representing that learning in the manner required.