This chapter focuses upon two former British colonies – Uganda and Sudan – to illustrate the contention that civil wars in Africa are typically rooted in religio-ethnic competition and conflict. Such conflicts are normally exacerbated by group competition for material resources in circumstances of developmental failures and political instability. To attempt to deal with the problems that cause religious and ethnic conflict leading to civil war, it is necessary for African countries, including Uganda and Sudan, meaningfully to democratize – to the extent that the great majority of citizens feel that they have a stake in their country’s political future. The chances of such an outcome are improved when economies show signs of growing over time and when governments manage to disseminate developmental gains relatively equitably.