China’s energy policy will continue to be driven by the need to support economic growth in order to maintain the legitimacy of the ruling Communist Party. Energy demand will continue to rise for the foreseeable future and security of energy supply will remain the most important priority in national energy policy. In this context, self-reliance is likely to continue as the preferred approach of the government. Such a strategy is clearly no longer viable for oil, at least until such time as alternative transport fuels are widely available at acceptable prices. Thus the country’s requirement for oil imports is set to rise for many years. The future growth of imports of gas and coal is less certain, and will depend, in part, on the degree of success in constraining the overall rate of increase in demand for energy, in exploiting domestic unconventional gas, and in developing nuclear and renewable energy sources.