That JI relies on indoctrination has been noted by a number of researchers. For example, Zachary Abuza states that JI “remains a strong organisation that, despite arrests of much of its leadership, is able to recruit and indoctrinate new members”.3 Kumar Ramakrishna claims that “ordinary young Muslim men are transformed into indoctrinated JI militants”.4 Rohan Gunaratna adds that “the group of JI’s members was psychologically predisposed to indoctrination and control by JI’s leaders”. 5 Some family members of convicted militants in Indonesia also believed that their relatives had been victims of indoctrination.6 The infl uence of JI went beyond the shores of Indonesia to other parts of Southeast Asia. For example, groups of Singaporean JI members were arrested in Singapore for their plots to attack key installations in Singapore. It has been reported that these members “had been indoctrinated by a charismatic preacher during religious classes in the privacy of JI members’ homes”.7