Before the Employment Act of 1980 one of these favourable legal provisions took the form of a procedure whereby an independent trade union could ensure effective recognition by an employer for the purposes of collective bargaining. An appeal could be made to the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) and the Central Arbitration Committee (CAe) which are described in Section 9 below; and a recommendation could be obtained determining which union should represent a group of workers for bargaining over a given set of subjects. If the recommendation was not accepted by the employer, a final sanction was the issue of a compulsory arbitral award specifying the terms which the employer must observe. This provision was repealed by the Employment Act of 1980.