Bibliographies, discographies, and videographies provide lists of sources that are typically restricted to a specifi c topic, geographic region, or fi eld. Along with other guides for research, these bibliographic sources play an important role in aiding scholars and students during the early stages of research as they seek primary and secondary literature for their projects, and then compile preliminary bibliographies of their own. While major bibliographic guides are released in book-length form, signifi cant guides for information on music and related fi elds, by region or topic, are also found in literature reviews and lists published in journals, book chapters, and now on the Web.