Video and fi lm play a crucial role in ethnomusicological and anthropological research. Thirty years ago, many ethnomusicologists could not afford video cameras to take into the fi eld, while today they are considered essential equipment for documenting performance and contextual information. In addition general support for video documentation by professional fi lmmakers has increased in recent years. The result is a wealth of new video data on music and dance for use in research and education. Documentary fi lms and video footage, as well as feature fi lms, are used in classrooms to aid in teaching about performance practice as well as musical and social behavior; readily communicating information on musical instruments, dance choreography, individual musicians, relationships among performers, and connections between music and the physical landscape. Videos are also some of the most effective tools for introducing social issues, providing a basis for discussion in ethnomusicology classes.