THE lives of human beings are characterized by continuous interaction with others. Newborn children can only survive if taken care of by their parents or other caretakers immediately after birth and if the care continues for years. Reciprocity, cooperation, and sharing are-to various degrees and in various ways-important characteristics of our lives. In the evolution of the human species there seems to have been a gene-culture coevolution and a selection for specific traits that enable humans to function especially well within groups, both to their own individual benefit and to the advantage of the group (Stige, 2002). Belongingness and relatedness have been suggested as basic psychological or social needs so fundamental that if systematically frustrated the health consequences may be quite serious (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Berkman & Glass, 2000). Our social
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 2
Community Music Therapy
There are a number of conceptual models describing the elements of such contexts. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological model describing relationships between micro - systems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems has been influential. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979, pp. 16-42), microsystems consist of patterns of activities, roles, and interpersonal relationships experienced by the developing person in a given setting (such as a family or a peer group). Mesosystems refer to the interrelations among two or more microsystems in which the developing person actively participates (such as the relations between home and school for a child). Exosystems refer to systems that do not involve the active participation of the developing person but which influence the systems containing the developing person (a local council or a school administration are examples of exosystems). Macrosystems refer to textures and consistencies at higher levels of organization, such as society. Such levels can be understood as nested, where lower levels are embedded in higher levels.