The concepts of transference, acting out, and repetition were introduced together, early in Freud’s writing (1905, 1912a, 1914). Despite their intertwined beginnings, psychoanalytic thinking about transference and action developed along separate paths, the latter in both neglected and disfavored fashion. In his review of action and acting out, Roughton (1996, p. 130) notes that “from the very beginning of ‘the talking cure,’ there has been a strong tendency to exclude action, both in fact and in theory, from this mostly verbal process.”