Our starting point is that JR is an approach that, to some extent, is grounded in an economic conception of criminal justice. We therefore begin our discussion of general principles and etiology by reference to relevant economic concepts and theory. However, while we take some elements from the traditional neoliberal approach to economics, we also recognise the limitations of this paradigm and base our analysis on a more humanistic set of economic principles, in which the concept of social justice is central. In the following chapter, Chapter 9, we discuss the types of interventions and the approach to commissioning them implied by this new theory of JR.