In this last chapter I shall try to make a short summary of the most important points and issues of this book and their mutual connections. I shall do this by chronologically going through the main features of the process that started by the first appearances of what has been called ‘late modernity’ in the 1950s and has led up to the present situation in which human learning to a growing extent is characterized by the underlying identity development we all have to deal with and the transformative learning that this implies.