We concluded Chapter 5 by noting that a major source of confidence in our mortality estimates is derived from the observation that when they are combined with our best fertility estimates, they produce a population that matches the observable !Kung growth rate and age distribution. We could not demonstrate that this was true until we had established our best estimates of fertility. In Chapters 6–10 we explored the fertility of women and are now ready to return to the question of the interaction of mortality and fertility rates.