The fertility of the !Kung appears, from all the information available, to be low. It is not low in relation to the needs of the people to compensate for their mortality (a subject to be considered in more detail later), but low in comparison with the fertility achieved by other peoples of the world who do not practice contraception. We have sought an explanation of the low fertility, in the last chapter, in the epidemic of venereally induced sterility, but failed to find this factor an adequate explanation. There must be additional factors in the special conditions of life of the !Kung that lead to their distinctively low pattern of natural fertility.