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combination of features. Language itself, and many of its effects, are nonmaterial and leave no clues for the archaeologist. \Vhat, so far as we can tell, were the consequences of this evolutionary innovation? Much of what we call human culture-religion and oral literature, for instance-consists in largely verbal products. Further, it is clear that language must have made possible more flexible and. complex social organization. If you have ever arrived alone in a foreign country with no knowledge of its language, you can feel how powerless a creature is when reduced to the use of gesture and force.