Ludwig Erhard, who had already masterminded the beginnings of economic recovery with the currency reform in the western zones of German during 1948, when he became Wirtschaftsminister. This chapter focuses on German guilt with the trial in Frankfurt am Main between 1963 and 1965 of some twenty former staff of Auschwitz, and in 1960-62 by the arrest and subsequent execution in Israel of Adolf Eichmann, who had masterminded the deportation of Europes Jews. The other key plank of these reforms was intended to be the introduction of Gesamtschulen in place of the three-tier secondary education system of Gymnasium, Realschule and Hauptschule. The Brandt and Schmidt governments did achieve some significant social reforms, and enabled some of the angry generation of 1968 to begin their langer Marsch durch die Institutionen, taking posts within the German civil service and initiating reform from within.