Conceiving of these patterns as addictive or compulsive yields a slightly different understanding of why they are engaged in despite their detrimental effects. Instead of presuming that these activities are intended to be hazardous and destructive, this model focuses on explaining how individuals who engage in them avoid recognizing their harmful consequences. In other words, when these same behaviors are thought of as addictive or compulsive rather than self-injurious, they are seen as being maintained not by the intent to be self-punitive but as a result of denial of their damaging effects .