Stolorow's "A Functional Definition of Narcissism" (1975a) gave rise to his explication of "The Narcissistic Function of Masochism and Sadism" (1975b; Stolorow and Lachmann, 1980), in which masochistic activity was revealed as serving narcissistic functions, functions redefined as coextensive with the maintenance of self-cohesion, selfcontinuity, and self-esteem. Through this lens, Gayle's masochistic attachment to her mortifying pigsty of an apartment, which she says reflects the person she is, may profitably be seen as serving selfsustaining functions.