The places of articulation identified in Chapter 3 are approached in different ways by the active articulators, the different gestures producing different sound effects – different manners of articulation. Manners combine with voice and place to create individual speech sounds. Double articulations, and primary and secondary articulations are also introduced in this chapter, completing the range of terms needed to construct Voice-Place-Manner (VPM) labels. Ways of representing sounds are discussed (transcriptions, labels, diagrams), and instrumental-imaging of speech sounds (waveforms and spectrograms) introduced.