Introduction The aim of this book has been to contest the belief that there is an inevitable, inescapable and irreversible shift towards a formal market economy in postSoviet societies by re-evaluating the role of informal economies in this region of the world. In this chapter we synthesise the findings from the previous chapters to reach some conclusions on the role of informal economies in post-Soviet societies. To do this, and following the structure of the book, first, we review the theoretical and conceptual framework we have advocated for rethinking the role of informal economies in the post-Soviet world and, second, display how using this as a lens enables one to more fully understand not only that households draw upon a plurality of economic practices to secure their livelihood in post-Soviet spaces, but also how the nature, role and meaning of these diverse work practices vary across different population groups.