ABSTRACT

Introduction This chapter examines three further forms of work that have in common the fact that they are conducted on a one-to-one basis, namely one-to-one unpaid labour, reimbursed family work and paid favours. The intention is to display the prevalence of these forms of labour in everyday livelihood practices in post-Soviet societies in order to show on the one hand, how the transition to a hegemonic formal market economy is far from achieved and that post-Soviet societies remain characterised by diverse economies, and on the other hand, the role of these informal economies in everyday livelihood practices in the post-Soviet world. To evaluate, first, one-to-one unpaid labour, second, reimbursed family work and, third, paid favours in post-Soviet spaces, and in order to delve deeper into the role and meaning of such work practices, in each case the Ukrainian and Moscow surveys will be analysed to explore, on the one hand, the extent of each form of work and, on the other hand, the character of such exchanges. The outcome will be an overview of the use of each of these forms of work in postSoviet societies. This will reveal that contrary to the neo-liberal assumptions that post-Soviet societies are in transition to a fully fledged formal market economy, such informal economic activities continue to play an important role in the livelihood practices of a large segment of the population in the post-Soviet world.