Most religions and themes of spirituality raise issues about whether human beings are responsible moral agents in their own right, or whether their behavior is more or less determined by animal instincts, divine will, or fate (Gerth & Mills, 1953). Assessments about the extent to which people choose their destinies and control their life situations or life chances grow out of assumptions about whether supernatural powers are responsible for human behavior, or whether people are fully responsible for what they do (Berger & Luckmann, 1967).