In a recent essay on theories of ideology Slavoj Žižek (1994, pp. 1-33) describes contemporary approaches by distributing them around the three axes identified by Hegel: doctrine, belief and ritual, that is,

ideology as a complex of ideas (theories, convictions, beliefs, argumentative procedures); ideology in its externality, that is, the materiality of ideology, Ideological State Apparatus; and finally, the most elusive domain, the ‘spontaneous’ ideology at work at the heart of social ‘reality’ itself.