deprive the therapist of what he most counts on to sustain hope-a working relationship that will grow in depth and security as the work progresses. With these patients, such a relationship does not as a rule exist, at least for a long time, because their mental structure has been shaped too extensively, or for too long, by the effects of trauma and dissociation. Their capacity to trust a human relationship must first be slowly restored-in some cases built for the first time-and without this restructuring taking place, any attempt at psychoanalysis results in a pseudo analysis.