This chapter examines the lack of awareness of often-critical roles of countryside management in engaging local communities and engendering active citizenship, this chapter discusses the economic impacts, direct and indirect, of countryside services. It is based in part on a study commissioned by the Central Council of Physical Recreation to investigate available evidence of the economic impacts of countryside sport and recreation. None of the reviewed studies attempted to give any overall estimates for economic and employment impacts. The current issues of economic decline, there are important challenges if growth and development are to continue. Countryside recreation and sport contribute to local economic regeneration and social cohesion. Contryside management factors make major savings for the Exchequer and some make sizeable contributions too. Countryside recreation and sport contribute to local economic regeneration and social cohesion. This is true in remote rural regions, but also in the urban fringes and urban centres.