In Chapter 5, we discussed how the difference-oriented, problem-focused, fear-embedded view of culture has guided much of the theory development in the literature of intercultural communication. Under the influence of the Cold War, the underlying assumption of mainstream theories is that differences are a source of problem, cost, risk, danger, and difficulties. Hofstede—an influential theorist—stated that cultural gaps are “a source of conflict than of synergy, a nuisance at best and often a disaster.” 1 This approach is not always helpful. It undermines the bright side of diversity. Focusing on the potential mismatches when cultures collide may do our brain a disservice by preparing us to be reactive rather than proactive, defensive rather than cooperative, viewing differences as problems rather than opportunities.