In the previous chapter, we learned that historical context has unwittingly conditioned theories and practices of cross-cultural management toward negative phenomena. This, in turn, triggers fear of failure as a motivation to learn, which, benefit notwithstanding, can also be harmful. As a powerful instrument in perceiving the world and guiding behaviors, mainstream metaphors, such as the iceberg and the distance, might have influenced and worsened this bias, resulting in the dominance of a difference-oriented, problem-focused, and fear-embedded communication approach