As i n psychoanalysis, nonverbal research positions are taken along the lines of classical phi losophical dichotomies: nature versus nur-ture, universality versus cultural difference, and intrinsic versus context-determined meaning. Debates w i t h i n nonverbal research parallel those of competing psychoanalytic schools. The study of schools of nonverbal research has the advantage that the kinds of data generated i n this research, unl ike those generated f rom psychoanalytic case studies, al low a more detailed comparison among the different schools.