As noted i n the previous chapter, psychoanalysts' views about action were init ial ly tied to conceptions of the body's role (through the i n -termediary role of the id and drives) i n both creating and interferi n g w i t h thought. Through intuitive affinities l i n k i n g the idea of body w i t h action, it was impl ied that action is i n conflict w i t h thought and understanding as a function of m i n d . Despite the philosophical relegation of act ion and the body beyond the pale, psychoanalysts still had to contend w i t h both the inevitable action without thought and frequent demands for direct interaction made by the patient. Later views challenged the original conception of the role of the body and action i n thought. But the challenges d i d not remove the difficulty of contending w i t h action, and there are consequently a number of approaches to action. A t first w i t h i n the challenging conceptions, the actions of the patient and analyst were separated. In more recent conceptions, the simultaneity and reciprocity of the two participants ' positions have been recognized.