In this chapter I first review those theorists who conceptualize the nature of the Rorschach task as one essentially involving perceptual process. This is then followed by a discussion of more recent efforts to shift the theoretical basis of the Rorschach from perception to representation. Finally, and in keeping with the applied clinical emphasis in this section of the book, I discuss the impact of the proposed theo-

retical shift upon the interpretation of Rorschach data. This chapter is intended as a summary rather than as a comprehensive review or penetrating critique. For such a review and critique, including a discussion of nonperceptual and nonrepresentational theories, refer to Leichtman (1996).