In this chapter the emphasis is upon the use of the Rorschach in assessing treatment outcome. Although investigators studying treatment outcome repeatedly insist upon the need for independent assessment, only rarely have psychological tests that include projective instruments been used. As Blatt et al. (1988) have noted, "Despite the fact that projective techniques, especially the Rorschach, could be quite useful for assessing positive and negative symptoms as well as the tendency to have disrupted relationships, these assessment procedures have rarely been utilized in psychotherapy research" (p. 130).