As is true of many of the concepts and tenns we introduced in preceding chapters, tenns such as "design," "research design," "experimental design," and "survey design" are used differently by different authors and researchers. Some use them "narrowly," almost synonymously with the tenn "analysis," whereas others use them "broadly" to refer to all aspects of the research, including measurement, sampling, setting, data collection, analysis, and theoretical fonnulations. Understandably, therefore, books devoted to research design vary widely in topics covered as well as in specific emphases.