Cameron (1984) and Cameron and Whetten (1983) had made a comprehensive review of the literature on organizational effectiveness. Cameron (1984) suggested seven major models that can be used to study effectiveness of organizations in general, including the goal model, system-resource model, internal process model, strategic-constituencies model, competing-values model, legitimacy model and in­ effectiveness model. To a great extent, the competing-values model is a submodel of the strategic constituencies model, both emphasizing constituencies’ needs, pref­ erences, and satisfaction. My previous papers, Cheng (1990b) and Cheng (1993i), adapted their ideas to school organizations by combining these two models and adding the organizational learning model into the classification. Recently, the de­ velopment and emphasis of total quality management in education indicates a new conception of school effectiveness that should be included. Therefore, with the reference of Cameron (1984) and my previous papers, I will classify in this chapter the conceptions of school effectiveness into eight models including the goal model, resource-input model, process model, satisfaction model, legitimacy model, organ­ izational model, ineffectiveness model, and total management model. The basic characteristics of the models are summarized in Table 2.1.